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  • 00:00
     
    #the Royal Tyrrell Museum    #Dr. Caleb Brown    #the Royal Tyrrell Museum    #the Royal Tyrrell Museum   
    Good morning everyone and welcome to the 2018 Royal Tyrrell Museum speaker series today the Royal Tyrrell Museum and it's cooperating society are proud to present our very own Dr. Caleb Brown. Caleb is the Betsy Nichols postdoctoral fellow here at the Royal Tyrrell Museum. Caleb is originally from northern British Columbia but grew up in Red Deer Alberta he received his bachelor's degree from the department of biological sciences at the University of Calgary and spent three summers during his undergraduate years working in the preparation lab here at the Royal Tyrrell Museum after completing ... and spent three summers during his undergraduate years working in the preparation lab here at [he Royal Tyrrell Museum after completing his bachelor's degree Caleb stayed at the U of C to pursue his master's degree again in the Department of Biological Sciences where he investigated the diversity of small plant eating dinosaurs in the Late Cretaceous of Canada after successfully... PhD in the Department of ecology and evolutionary biology at the University of Toronto for his dissertation he studied the variation and evolutionary morphology and horned dinosaurs from dinosaur Provincial Park fresh out of his PhD Caleb moved to Drumheller to take on a postdoctoral fellow position here at the Museum. Caleb's research interests focused primarily on the evolution of dinosaurs particularly of ceratopsians. Over the years Caleb has conducted fieldwork in Alberta Saskatchewan the Northwest Territories China and Mongolia.
  • 01:32
     
    #Discovery of Ankylosaur Borealopelta   
    Today Caleb will give a talk about the world's best preserved Ankylosaur Borealopelta and what the new information about this specimen has revealed this specimen has revealed about armored dinosaurs. That's been done so far and that's just the tip of the iceberg because it'd be a lot more research done on this specimen as it progresses. The first thing that's I need to mention about this animal is that it's discovery was quite miraculous. And that's because it was discovered by this machine here this excavator. In the the oil sands mines Suncor Millennium Mine north of Fort McMurray. Here's a sense of scale with a person these are gigantic excavators the operator will be standing almost ten meters above the ground and each bucket full of rock that it picks up can contain up to 44 cubic meters of rock so the fact that this is what hit the dinosaur and the operator noticed it we need to be very give proper attributes to the discoverer and that was Shawn Funk he was the operator of this equipment. The fossil laws in Alberta are some of the most progressive in the world. In that any industrial mining in areas that have paleontological resources it needs to be monitoring and if anything important needs to reported to the proper authorities in this case the Royal Tyrell Museum and then we respond we assess the find and try to collect as quickly as possible and that was the case here with some course help we had a team on the ground in a couple of days and that team. Donald Henderson our curator of dinosaurs and Darren Tankey one of our senior technicians and their job was to assess the find figure out what it was and the best way to collect it now before I can go any further need to give you a bit of context Discovery of Ankylosaur Borealopelta
  • 05:23
     
    #Animals Discovered in Clearwater Formation   
    Inland Sea covering most or the central part of North America and the rock that they're digging through is called the Clearwater formation it was deposited not in rivers or flooding events that we see the rock around from Drumheller ... older it's about 40 million years older than the rocks in the Drumheller area or the rock down and down super flinchin Park because it's a marine environment we would expect to find marine animals ... we have got a lot of weather exquisite animals have been marine animals. So here on the top we have Nichollsaura borealis or which is a plesiosaur and on the bottom we have Athabascasaurus Bitumineus which is an ichthyosaur ... just to show you what this looks like in a more internal sense. so here are some amazing CT scans provided by Ed Stirling at the Florida Museum and on the left you have the animal as it was in life and the right you have a CT scan everything but the bones has been removed ..The best example are living crocodilian covered in this kind of leathery skin but within that skin you have these bits of bone that form this network that cover the animals back and the sides and the belly so given that we have these Animals Discovered in Clearwater Formation
  • 08:33
     
    #Armoured Dinosaurs    #Osteroderm   
    But uniquely they also have an exoskeleton or dermal skeleton ... one group has the armour restricted to pair of rows that run down the back and modify tentative plates or spines and a good example of this is Stegosaurus and this is the group called Stegosaurus and there's another major variation called Ankylorauria ... specifically has a tail club that's made up of armour at the tip of the tail whereas notice or day does not have a tail club... this is one of the areas that gets confusing because the term and Ankylosaur can mean two different things there's multiple different things that can mean a callous or eyassa entire group work ... region this is one of the areas that gets confusing because the term and Ankylosaur can mean two different things there's multiple different things that can mean a Ankylosauria entire group work Armoured DinosaursOsteroderm
  • 10:13
     
    #Ankylosaur Borealopelta Excavation   
    Fairly quickly it became obvious that what we had here was an important specimen for a number of reasons. First off all thos osteoderms, they're still place still in the original pattern and the endoskeleton they're also in the original position...Diamond octagon scales skin ... stomach content... in cliff and had been noticed by Sean but half of the skeleton was still up high in the cliff we didn't either you can see a cross-section here showing kind of the bones still coming out of that cliff ... which is much better than having the back end preserved so in terms of a collection the first stage was kind of a salvage because it had been hit by the excavator there was chunks all over the place off the ground and hopes of putting this back together back at the museum of putting the animal back together the second stage of the excavation was getting down to the part that was still in the rock. It was back to kind of a salvage situation pick up all the pieces bring them back to the museum and put them back together again but despite this a couple weeks later all of the chunks arrive here at Ankylosaur Borealopelta Excavation
  • 13:33
     
    #Preparation of Ankylosaur Borealopelta Skeleton   
    First part is actually at the beginning because the next step is the preparation and the specimen was handed off to the very capable hands of Mark Mitchell who's one of our long-term technicians and Mark's job was to slowly remove all of the rock down to the surface of the specimen consolidate everything glue it back together and put everything back in it's original position. Working on this specimen alone and the reason it took so long is a couple of factors first off the size the bigger the specimen the more time you need to put in to prepare it and get it ready for research. Preparation of Ankylosaur Borealopelta Skeleton
  • 16:40
     
    #Distinctive Features of Ankylosaur Borealopelta   
    I just want to highlight some of the really cool features really distinct features about this animal first off it has a really triangular skull... tends to have short rounded skull so instantly we know that this is a nodasaur. It has these three large rows of osteoderms on its neck with big keels and those off often also continue all the way down the back. Distinctive Features of Ankylosaur Borealopelta
  • 18:33
     
    #Osteoderm Throughout Body   
    and the big thing here is that there's alternating rows of polygamous scales in this green color and then all steo terms in the orange color whoever Osteoderms are the bony components of the armor ... deep part of the skin shown in green and then on top of that off students have this scale which is epidermis ... deep part of the skin shown in green and then on top of that off students have this scale which is epidermis... here you can see the osteoderm reflecting uv light more than everything else what's really useful though is if we look at this under infrared light here you can see the osteoderm glow they're reflecting a lot of that UV light Osteoderm Throughout Body
  • 25:35
     
    #Unique Features of Ankylosaur Borealopelta   
    gonna show you some of the features that make it unique or that that are shared by a small number of animals to do that I'm going to use this beautiful skeletal illustration done by Donna Sloan and .. and these are basically plates of bone that are either fused to the skull or outgrowth of the skull and they cover most of the skull itself and this animal has this one large kind of Unique Features of Ankylosaur Borealopelta
  • 29:24
     
    #XRays of Internal Skeleton   
    so it's hard to make direct comparisons for like comparing apples to oranges so ideally you the greatest x-ray and see what's inside and see if we can demarcate the internal skeleton for comparison an ... an demarcate the internal skeleton for comparison and often we can do that using ct scanning so we took it to Calgary and got a CT scanned unfortunately this was not successful for a couple of reasons ... it very hard to penetrate so this didn't pan out as we were hoping we are still working on trying to get it scanned with a more high-powered scanner the problem is that the specimen is so large and so heavy yet at the same time it's so delicate XRays of Internal Skeleton
  • 30:28
     
    #Anatomical Features    #Armoured Dinosaurs   
    for a variety of characters or traits and in this case we're using the character matrix of Arbour et al 2016 so a series of Anatomical Features that we quantify for each animal and using this matrix... if you look at those cranial dermal plates they have a large number of irregular plates on the top of the skull the latest forms the forms you find in dinosaur Provincial Park and Armoured Dinosaurs
  • 34:20
     
    #Five Best Preserved Ankylosaur   
    course because of the preserved scales so this is that same family tree I've just rotated 0 degrees and here are the five best preserved and Ankylosaur again light yellow or the off to terms ... that we can play around with it try to get some interesting answers for so if we go back to our kind of tissue map of where the different tissues are preserved one of the first things we have to do Five Best Preserved Ankylosaur
  • 43:25
     
    #Preservation of Color    #Preservation of Color   
    second thing I want to talk about in terms of the research is the Preservation of Color and if I was giving this talk ten years ago I would have said we don't know anything about dinosaur color you can ... who's one of our co-authors on this particular project looking at preserved color in just a very quick explanation... or it can be preserved structurally for the melanin group of pigments there's two types there's eumelanin which is the black pigments if you have black hair that's mainly what's in your hair Preservation of Color
  • 49:42
     
    #Borealopelta Camouflage   
    well if we toss Borealopelta in there it falls in that area where animals today are not counter shaded and are not subject to predation so what this means is that even though Borealopelta was a large one and half ton heavily armoured dinosaur it still relied on visual camouflage. Borealopelta Camouflage

The World's Best Preserved Armoured Dinosaur

Dr. Caleb Brown, Royal Tyrrell Museum of Palaeontology, talks about the world's best preserved armoured dinosaur. In the spring of 2017, a new armoured dinosaur was publically unveiled with the opening of the exhibit Grounds for Discovery. Borealopelta markmitchelli was discovered in the oil sands mines in northern Alberta in 2011 and took nearly 6 years to prepare. Borealopelta is the best-preserved ankylosaur (tank-like, herbivorous dinosaurs) in the world and one of the most spectacular fossilized dinosaurs ever found. Preserved skin and armour cover the entire skeleton, maintaining the original three-dimensional shaped of the animal. Even the animal’s last meal may be fossilized in the stomach. This high level of preservation gives scientists an unprecedented view of what this animal looked like and to how it lived during the Early Cretaceous. In his presentation, Dr. Brown discusses the discovery, collection, preparation, and current research about this one-of-a-kind






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