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Episode Markers
  • 00:11
     
    #4 letter DNA    #4 nucleic acid bases   
    All natural living organisms have 4 letter DNA named after 4 nucleic acid bases - Adenine, Thymine, Guanine, Cytosine.
  • 00:29
     
    #Synthetic biologists    #semi-synthetic ecolli bacteria    #6 letter DNA   
    Synthetic biologists created semi-synthetic ecolli bacteria using 6 letter DNA.
  • 00:52
     
    #2 synthetic bases are dNaM and dTPT3   
    The 2 synthetic bases are dNaM and dTPT3. These are simply called X and Y respectively.
  • 01:04
     
    #DNA can zip and unzip   
    The new base pairs need to bond with existing pairs so that the DNA can zip and unzip.
  • 02:18
     
    #Erwin Schrodinger   
    The science of DNA got its start in 1944 for Erwin Schrodinger delivered a lecture series describing how ordinary matter can create complex living organisms. One question he asked is how could this information be stored.
  • 02:53
     
    #Deoxyribonucleic Acid   
    Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) was the first candidate that met Schrodinger&39;s description.
  • 03:20
     
    #codons   
    The 4 nucleic acid bases can create 64 unique 3 character N-grams - codons.
  • 04:15
     
    #risk of these semi-synthetic bacteria escaping is small   
    Since the organisms can&39;t produce X and Y on their own and because there is no supply in nature, the risk of these semi-synthetic bacteria escaping is small.

Organisms with 6-Letter DNA created!

Scientists have created living bacteria with two extra letters of genetic code, nicknamed X, and Y for short. Help me make Sciencium: http://ve42.co/JoinUs For more info: http://ve42.co/SAsynthEcoli Animated by Kyle Norby Life has been evolving on earth for about 3.7 billion years. In spite of its diversity, all living things have one thing in common � DNA, a fundamental code containing just four chemical letters; adenine, thymine, guanine, and cytosine. Until now. Synthetic biologists from the Scripps Research Institute in California have, for the first time, created semi-synthetic E. coli bacteria with a 6-letter genetic code. That might sound like something out of Jurassic Park, but even in Jurassic Park the cloned dinosaurs were coded using A, T, G and C. These new semi-synthetic organisms are an entirely new variation on life. The two synthetic bases that have been added are dNaM and dTPT3, but for short they�re called X and Y. The team hav






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